An Overview of Sigma-Delta Converters How a 1-bit ADC. Sigma Delta 123Ord2 Dt Adc Tutorial - Download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online. 123, ment is the delta-sigma (DS) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This device’s claim to fame is its high 24-bit reso-lution, which provides 224 or about 16 million output codes. Granted, not all of the lower bits are noise-free, but it is not unusual for a DS ADC to have 20 noise-free bits, or about 1 million noise-free output codes. This is at least four times better than the performance of.

### Demystifying Delta-Sigma ADCs Tutorial - Maxim

Sigma-Delta ADC Tutorial and Latest Development in 90 nm. ment is the delta-sigma (DS) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This device’s claim to fame is its high 24-bit reso-lution, which provides 224 or about 16 million output codes. Granted, not all of the lower bits are noise-free, but it is not unusual for a DS ADC to have 20 noise-free bits, or about 1 million noise-free output codes. This is at least four times better than the performance of, 3 V/5 V, 450 µA 16 -Bit, Sigma -Delta ADC Data Sheet AD7715 Rev. E Document Feedback Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no.

A delta sigma ADC or DAC always consists of a delta sigma modulator which produces the bitstream and a low pass filter. The modulator will be implemented with digital technology if you have a digital signal source and in analogue technique in case of an analogue signal source. The sigma-delta modulator loop typically runs at a much higher frequency than the final output rate of the digital filter. For example, a converter with a 2kHz output data rate may have a modulator loop frequency of over 2.5MHz.

Understanding the Delta-Sigma ADC July 14, 2016 by Elliott Smith Learn more about the Delta-Sigma ADC (analog-to-digital converter) which relies upon oversampling and noise shaping to achieve high-resolution conversions. Flash ADCs do not compete with a sigma-delta architecture because currently the achievable conversion rates differ by up to two orders of magnitude. The sigma-delta architecture is suitable for applications with much lower bandwidth, typically less than 1MHz, and with resolutions in the 12- to 24-bit range. Sigma-delta converters are capable of the highest resolution possible in ADCs. They

Thermal sigma-delta modulator is a closed-loop measurement approach, where the sensing element performs part of the $ΣΔ$ modulation in the thermal domain. Design of a Delta-Sigma Fractional-N PLL Frequency Synthesizer at 1.43GHz A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATESCHOOL OF THE …

Rev.A, 10/08, WK Page 1 of 12 MT-022 TUTORIAL ADC Architectures III: Sigma-Delta ADC Basics . by Walt Kester. INTRODUCTION . The sigma-delta (-ΔΣ) ADC is the converter of choice for modern voiceband, audio, and high- This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Delta-sigma modulation article. This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject.

Thermal sigma-delta modulator is a closed-loop measurement approach, where the sensing element performs part of the $ΣΔ$ modulation in the thermal domain. The ever increasing data rates in wireless communication require analog to digital converters (ADCs) with greater requirements on speed and accuracy, while being power e cient to prolong battery life.

PDF Sigma-delta modulation is the most popular form of analog-to-digital conversion used in audio applications. It is also commonly used in D/A converters, sample-rate converters, and digital 18/11/2014 · Delta-sigma (ΔΣ; or sigma-delta, ΣΔ) modulation is a digital signal processing, or DSP method for encoding analog signals into digital signals as found in an ADC. It is also used to transfer

Texas Instruments Incorporated. Data Acquisition How delta-sigma ADCs work, Part 1 By Bonnie Baker Signal Integrity Engineer Analog techniques have dominated signal processing for years, but digital techniques are slowly encroaching into this domain. Sigma Delta ADC Sigma Delta analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are used predominately in lower speed applications requiring a trade off of speed for resolution by oversampling, followed by filtering to reduce noise. 24 bit

### Sigma Delta 123Ord2 Dt Adc Tutorial Analog To Digital

Understanding Delta-Sigma Modulators Electronic Design. 6 C. Second Order Delta Sigma ADC Example To develop a basic understanding of the design flow of a ADC, an overview example is provided here., Volume IV - Digital > Chapter 13: DIGITAL-ANALOG CONVERSION > Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) ADC Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) ADC One of the more advanced ADC technologies is the so-called delta-sigma….

### (PDF) Understanding Sigma-Delta Modulation The Solved and

How delta-sigma ADCs work Part 2 (TI). Sigma Delta ADC, a type of oversampling ADC is highly tolerant to analog circuit imperfections, thus making it a good choice to realize embedded ADC interfaces in modern systems-on-chip (SoCs)[1]. Sigma-Delta (Σ−∆) modulation based analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion technology is a cost effective alternative for high resolution (greater than 12 bits) converters which can be ultimately integrated on dig-ital signal processor ICs. Although the sigma-delta modulator was first intro- duced in 1962 [1], it did not gain importance until recent developments in digital VLSI technologies.

The ever increasing data rates in wireless communication require analog to digital converters (ADCs) with greater requirements on speed and accuracy, while being power e cient to prolong battery life. Sigma-Delta ADC Tutorial and Latest Development in 90 nm CMOS for SoC Jinseok Koh Wireless Analog Technology Center Texas Instruments Inc. Dallas, TX

4.8 kHz Ultralow Noise 24-Bit Sigma-Delta ADC with PGA Data Sheet AD7190 Rev. C Document Feedback Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for Wireless Communication Mattias Andersson Doctoral Dissertation Lund, March 2014

Abstract - Incremental data converters (IDCs) are high-accuracy oversampled analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). They form a special subclass of the commonly used delta-sigma ADCs. Unlike the latter, IDCs are only operated intermittently, typically for a few hundred clock periods, and hence they possess only a finite memory. They offer advantages in high accuracy, stability, absence of idle Understanding the Delta-Sigma ADC July 14, 2016 by Elliott Smith Learn more about the Delta-Sigma ADC (analog-to-digital converter) which relies upon oversampling and noise shaping to achieve high-resolution conversions.

Sigma Delta ADC, a type of oversampling ADC is highly tolerant to analog circuit imperfections, thus making it a good choice to realize embedded ADC interfaces in modern systems-on-chip (SoCs)[1]. 2.5 MSPS, 24-Bit, 100 dB Sigma-Delta ADC with On-Chip Buffer AD7760 Rev. A Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.

16-Bit, 1.2 MSPS CMOS, Sigma-Delta ADC AD7723 Rev. C Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog … Sigma-Delta ADC Tutorial and Latest Development in 90 nm CMOS for SoC Jinseok Koh Wireless Analog Technology Center Texas Instruments Inc. Dallas, TX

a delta-sigma ADC, which has an internal delta-sigma modulator in series with a digital filter. As you explore delta-sigma ADCs, you will find that, although they have a variety of other features, they all possess this basic structure. This column and the next three Baker’s Best columns explore the basic topology and functions of these two modules. The input signal to the delta-sigma ADC is The most well-known form of sigma-delta modulation is analog-to-digital conver- sion. In Fig. 2.4 the main building blocks of a generic Sigma-Delta ADC are shown.

• The sigggma delta modulator converts the analog signal into a noise-shaped low-resolution digital signal. • The decimator converts to a high resolution digital signal. Multi-order sigma delta noise shapers (Sangil Park, Motorola) OSR, modulator order and Dynamic Range • 2 X increase in Min M (6L+3)dB or (L+05)bit(L+0.5) bit increase in DR. •L: sigma-delta order •Oversampling andid Introduction This tutorial explores the design of a 4th order continuous-time (CT) ∆Σ ADC with a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) based integrator and quantizer using the CppSim

Sigma–delta modulation is the most popular form of analog-to-digital conversion used in audio applica- tions. It is also commonly used in D/A converters, sample-rate converters, and digital power amplifiers. 2.5 MSPS, 24-Bit, 100 dB Sigma-Delta ADC with On-Chip Buffer AD7760 Rev. A Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.

The Delta Sigma ADC is a highly configurable analog to digital converter. Drag an ADC_DelSig Drag an ADC_DelSig component onto your design and double-click it to open the Configure dialog. 32 High Frequency Electronics Decimation Filters Exploring Decimation Filters By Arash Loloee, Ph.D. Introduction Delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are among the most

## Optimal Trade-off Between Sampling Rate and Quantization

Sigma delta ADC design using Verilog-A Request PDF. a delta-sigma ADC, which has an internal delta-sigma modulator in series with a digital filter. As you explore delta-sigma ADCs, you will find that, although they have a variety of other features, they all possess this basic structure. This column and the next three Baker’s Best columns explore the basic topology and functions of these two modules. The input signal to the delta-sigma ADC is, Sigma delta A/D converters do not instantly digitize the incoming analog signal into a digital sample of n-bit precision at the Nyquist rate. Instead, a sigma delta ADC over samples the analog signal by an over sample ratio of (N) resulting in f N << f S (over sample rates of 16, 32, 64, 128 are common)..

### Sigma-Delta modulator ece.duke.edu

Demystifying Delta-Sigma ADCs Tutorial - Maxim. The purpose of this tutorial is to construct an analog-to-digital converter using the sigma-delta modulator on the Parallax Propeller P8X32A Quickstart Microcrontroller. Equipment Used:, PDF Sigma-delta modulation is the most popular form of analog-to-digital conversion used in audio applications. It is also commonly used in D/A converters, sample-rate converters, and digital.

Sigma-Delta (Σ−∆) modulation based analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion technology is a cost effective alternative for high resolution (greater than 12 bits) converters which can be ultimately integrated on dig-ital signal processor ICs. Although the sigma-delta modulator was first intro- duced in 1962 [1], it did not gain importance until recent developments in digital VLSI technologies Thermal sigma-delta modulator is a closed-loop measurement approach, where the sensing element performs part of the $ΣΔ$ modulation in the thermal domain.

Volume IV - Digital > Chapter 13: DIGITAL-ANALOG CONVERSION > Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) ADC Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) ADC One of the more advanced ADC technologies is the so-called delta-sigma… Sigma Delta ADC Sigma Delta analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are used predominately in lower speed applications requiring a trade off of speed for resolution by oversampling, followed by filtering to reduce noise. 24 bit

XPS Delta-Sigma Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) (v1.01a) 2 www.xilinx.com DS588 December 2, 2009 Product Specification Functional Description A Delta-Sigma DAC uses digital techniques to convert a digital number into an analog voltage. ment is the delta-sigma (DS) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This device’s claim to fame is its high 24-bit reso-lution, which provides 224 or about 16 million output codes. Granted, not all of the lower bits are noise-free, but it is not unusual for a DS ADC to have 20 noise-free bits, or about 1 million noise-free output codes. This is at least four times better than the performance of

A Continuous-Time Sigma-Delta ADC with Tunable Pass-Band for Multi-Standard Applications Mahmood Barangi,t Ahmad Beirami,+ Hamid Nejati,t and Warsame H. Ali* Abstract - Incremental data converters (IDCs) are high-accuracy oversampled analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). They form a special subclass of the commonly used delta-sigma ADCs. Unlike the latter, IDCs are only operated intermittently, typically for a few hundred clock periods, and hence they possess only a finite memory. They offer advantages in high accuracy, stability, absence of idle

32 High Frequency Electronics Decimation Filters Exploring Decimation Filters By Arash Loloee, Ph.D. Introduction Delta-sigma analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are among the most Demystifying Delta-Sigma ADCs Abstract: This in-depth article covers the theory behind a Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC). It specifically focuses on the difficult to understand key digital concepts of over-sampling, noise shaping, and decimation filtering.

Sigma–delta modulation is the most popular form of analog-to-digital conversion used in audio applica- tions. It is also commonly used in D/A converters, sample-rate converters, and digital power amplifiers. Texas Instruments Incorporated. Data Acquisition How delta-sigma ADCs work, Part 1 By Bonnie Baker Signal Integrity Engineer Analog techniques have dominated signal processing for years, but digital techniques are slowly encroaching into this domain.

a delta-sigma ADC, which has an internal delta-sigma modulator in series with a digital filter. As you explore delta-sigma ADCs, you will find that, although they have a variety of other features, they all possess this basic structure. This column and the next three Baker’s Best columns explore the basic topology and functions of these two modules. The input signal to the delta-sigma ADC is Figure 9. Digital side of sigma-delta modulator. In sigma-delta converters, a widely used filter topology that performs the lowpass function is the Sinc³ type (Figure

2.5 MSPS, 24-Bit, 100 dB Sigma-Delta ADC with On-Chip Buffer AD7760 Rev. A Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. 8-Channel, 4.8 kHz, Ultralow Noise, 24-Bit Sigma-Delta ADC with PGA Data Sheet AD7194 Rev. A Document Feedback Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.

The sigma-delta modulator loop typically runs at a much higher frequency than the final output rate of the digital filter. For example, a converter with a 2kHz output data rate may have a modulator loop frequency of over 2.5MHz. 3 V/5 V, 450 µA 16-Bit, Sigma-Delta ADC Data Sheet AD7715 Rev. E Document Feedback Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.

A Brief Introduction to Sigma Delta Conversion Introduction The sigma delta conversion technique has been in existence for many years, but recent technological advances now make the devices practical and their use is becoming widespread. The converters have found homes in such applications as communications systems, consumer and professional audio, industrial weight scales, and precision 18/11/2014 · Delta-sigma (ΔΣ; or sigma-delta, ΣΔ) modulation is a digital signal processing, or DSP method for encoding analog signals into digital signals as found in an ADC. It is also used to transfer

a delta-sigma ADC, which has an internal delta-sigma modulator in series with a digital filter. As you explore delta-sigma ADCs, you will find that, although they have a variety of other features, they all possess this basic structure. This column and the next three Baker’s Best columns explore the basic topology and functions of these two modules. The input signal to the delta-sigma ADC is Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulators for Wireless Communication Mattias Andersson Doctoral Dissertation Lund, March 2014

Sigma-Delta analog to digital converter (ΣΔADC) in the use of oversampling and noise shaping technology are two key technologies, which makes anti-aliasing requirements are … 625 kSPS, 24-Bit, 109 dB Sigma-Delta ADC With On-Chip Buffer Data Sheet AD7762 Rev. A Document Feedback Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.

The design of delta-sigma ( DS) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) is approximately three-quarters digital and one-quarter analog. DS ADCs are now ideal for converting analog signals over a wide range of frequencies, from DC to several megahertz. Basically, these converters consist of an oversampling modulator followed by a digital/ decimation filter that together produce a high-resolution Understanding Delta-Sigma Modulators (.PDF Download) Jul 31, 2013. Register to view the full article . By registering on Electronic Design now, you'll not only gain access to premium content, you

Sigma-Delta ADC Tutorial and Latest Development in 90 nm. Figure 9. Digital side of sigma-delta modulator. In sigma-delta converters, a widely used filter topology that performs the lowpass function is the Sinc³ type (Figure, Sigma Delta ADC Sigma Delta analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are used predominately in lower speed applications requiring a trade off of speed for resolution by oversampling, followed by filtering to reduce noise. 24 bit.

### Design of Multi-bit Sigma-Delta Modulators for Digital

The basics of sigma delta analog-to-digital converters. Volume IV - Digital > Chapter 13: DIGITAL-ANALOG CONVERSION > Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) ADC Delta-Sigma (ΔΣ) ADC One of the more advanced ADC technologies is the so-called delta-sigma…, www.analog.com Sigma-Delta New algorithms and Techniques Bob Adams Analog Devices Inc..

An Introduction to Delta Sigma Converters beis.de. The most well-known form of sigma-delta modulation is analog-to-digital conver- sion. In Fig. 2.4 the main building blocks of a generic Sigma-Delta ADC are shown., Texas Instruments Incorporated. Data Acquisition How delta-sigma ADCs work, Part 1 By Bonnie Baker Signal Integrity Engineer Analog techniques have dominated signal processing for years, but digital techniques are slowly encroaching into this domain..

### TalkDelta-sigma modulation Wikipedia

Delta Sigma Analog to Digital Converter (ADC_DelSig). ment is the delta-sigma (DS) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This device’s claim to fame is its high 24-bit reso-lution, which provides 224 or about 16 million output codes. Granted, not all of the lower bits are noise-free, but it is not unusual for a DS ADC to have 20 noise-free bits, or about 1 million noise-free output codes. This is at least four times better than the performance of DELTA-SIGMA MODULATORS FOR HIGH-SPEED A/D CONVERSION Theory, Practice and Fundamental Performance Limits James A. Cherry W. Martin Snelgrove Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston/Dordrecht/London. CONTINUOUS-TIME DELTA-SIGMA MODULATORS FOR HIGH-SPEED A/D CONVERSION Theory, Practice and Fundamental Performance Limits. THE KLUWER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE ANALOG.

Flash ADCs do not compete with a sigma-delta architecture because currently the achievable conversion rates differ by up to two orders of magnitude. The sigma-delta architecture is suitable for applications with much lower bandwidth, typically less than 1MHz, and with resolutions in the 12- to 24-bit range. Sigma-delta converters are capable of the highest resolution possible in ADCs. They 16-Bit, 1.2 MSPS CMOS, Sigma-Delta ADC AD7723 Rev. C Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog …

PDF Sigma-delta modulation is the most popular form of analog-to-digital conversion used in audio applications. It is also commonly used in D/A converters, sample-rate converters, and digital 8-Channel, 4.8 kHz, Ultralow Noise, 24-Bit Sigma-Delta ADC with PGA Data Sheet AD7194 Rev. A Document Feedback Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.

The sigma-delta modulator loop typically runs at a much higher frequency than the final output rate of the digital filter. For example, a converter with a 2kHz output data rate may have a modulator loop frequency of over 2.5MHz. An Overview of Sigma-Delta A lthough real world signals are analog, it is often desirable to convert them into the digital domain .using an analog to digital converter (ADC).

This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Delta-sigma modulation article. This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject. Sigma-Delta ADC Tutorial and Latest Development in 90 nm CMOS for SoC Jinseok Koh Wireless Analog Technology Center Texas Instruments Inc. Dallas, TX

4.8 kHz, Ultralow Noise, 24-Bit Sigma-Delta ADC with PGA and AC Excitation AD7195 Rev. 0 Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. 3 V/5 V, 450 µA 16 -Bit, Sigma -Delta ADC Data Sheet AD7715 Rev. E Document Feedback Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no

The Delta Sigma ADC is a highly configurable analog to digital converter. Drag an ADC_DelSig Drag an ADC_DelSig component onto your design and double-click it to open the Configure dialog. The design of delta-sigma ( DS) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) is approximately three-quarters digital and one-quarter analog. DS ADCs are now ideal for converting analog signals over a wide range of frequencies, from DC to several megahertz. Basically, these converters consist of an oversampling modulator followed by a digital/ decimation filter that together produce a high-resolution

PDF Sigma-delta modulation is the most popular form of analog-to-digital conversion used in audio applications. It is also commonly used in D/A converters, sample-rate converters, and digital 3 V/5 V, 450 µA 16-Bit, Sigma-Delta ADC Data Sheet AD7715 Rev. E Document Feedback Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable.

What is a Delta-Sigma ADC AKA Sigma-Delta ADC, over-sampling ADC, noise-shaping ADC, 1-bit ADC Integrates (Sigma) the difference (Delta) between the quantized output and the input INTRODUCTION TO DELTA-SIGMA ADCS Richard Schreier richard.schreier@analog.com Trevor Caldwell trevor.caldwell@utoronto.ca ECE1371 1-2 Course Goals • Deepen understanding of CMOS analog circuit design through a top-down study of a modern analog system The lectures will focus on Delta-Sigma ADCs, but you may do your project on another analog system. • Develop circuit insight …

www.analog.com Sigma-Delta New algorithms and Techniques Bob Adams Analog Devices Inc. Sigma-Delta (Σ−∆) modulation based analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion technology is a cost effective alternative for high resolution (greater than 12 bits) converters which can be ultimately integrated on dig-ital signal processor ICs. Although the sigma-delta modulator was first intro- duced in 1962 [1], it did not gain importance until recent developments in digital VLSI technologies

This is the talk page for discussing improvements to the Delta-sigma modulation article. This is not a forum for general discussion of the article's subject. Sigma Delta 123Ord2 Dt Adc Tutorial - Download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online. 123

A delta sigma ADC or DAC always consists of a delta sigma modulator which produces the bitstream and a low pass filter. The modulator will be implemented with digital technology if you have a digital signal source and in analogue technique in case of an analogue signal source. Rev.A, 10/08, WK Page 1 of 12 MT-022 TUTORIAL ADC Architectures III: Sigma-Delta ADC Basics . by Walt Kester. INTRODUCTION . The sigma-delta (-ΔΣ) ADC is the converter of choice for modern voiceband, audio, and high-

DELTA-SIGMA MODULATORS FOR HIGH-SPEED A/D CONVERSION Theory, Practice and Fundamental Performance Limits James A. Cherry W. Martin Snelgrove Kluwer Academic Publishers Boston/Dordrecht/London. CONTINUOUS-TIME DELTA-SIGMA MODULATORS FOR HIGH-SPEED A/D CONVERSION Theory, Practice and Fundamental Performance Limits. THE KLUWER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE ANALOG Design of a Delta-Sigma Fractional-N PLL Frequency Synthesizer at 1.43GHz A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATESCHOOL OF THE …

2.5 MSPS, 24-Bit, 100 dB Sigma-Delta ADC with On-Chip Buffer AD7760 Rev. A Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. 16-Bit, 1.2 MSPS CMOS, Sigma-Delta ADC AD7723 Rev. C Information furnished by Analog Devices is believed to be accurate and reliable. However, no responsibility is assumed by Analog …

A delta sigma ADC or DAC always consists of a delta sigma modulator which produces the bitstream and a low pass filter. The modulator will be implemented with digital technology if you have a digital signal source and in analogue technique in case of an analogue signal source. XPS Delta-Sigma Digital to Analog Converter (DAC) (v1.01a) 2 www.xilinx.com DS588 December 2, 2009 Product Specification Functional Description A Delta-Sigma DAC uses digital techniques to convert a digital number into an analog voltage.

What is ADC(Analog to Digital Converter) SIGMA-DELTA A/D Converter Main Components Resistors Capacitor Comparators Control Logic DAC. How does it work Input is over sampled, and goes to integrator. The integration is then compared to ground. Iterates and produces a serial bit stream Output is a serial bit stream with # of 1’s proportional to V in With this arrangement the sigma-delta The sigma-delta modulator loop typically runs at a much higher frequency than the final output rate of the digital filter. For example, a converter with a 2kHz output data rate may have a modulator loop frequency of over 2.5MHz.

A delta sigma ADC or DAC always consists of a delta sigma modulator which produces the bitstream and a low pass filter. The modulator will be implemented with digital technology if you have a digital signal source and in analogue technique in case of an analogue signal source. Flash ADCs do not compete with a sigma-delta architecture because currently the achievable conversion rates differ by up to two orders of magnitude. The sigma-delta architecture is suitable for applications with much lower bandwidth, typically less than 1MHz, and with resolutions in the 12- to 24-bit range. Sigma-delta converters are capable of the highest resolution possible in ADCs. They